Dog Dementia – Understanding and Managing Canine Cognitive Dysfunction in Dogs

Dog Dementia – Understanding and Managing Canine Cognitive Dysfunction in Dogs

As our beloved furry friends age, they are susceptible to a range of age-related illnesses, including dementia. Canine dementia, also known as canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD), is a condition that affects senior dogs, causing a decline in cognitive function. Similar to dementia in humans, CCD can have a significant impact on a dog's quality of life. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the signs, symptoms, and treatments of canine dementia in dogs, equipping you with the knowledge to recognize and manage this condition in your furry companion.

Understanding Canine Dementia

Canine Dementia

Canine dementia, or CCD, is a progressive neurological disorder that affects a significant portion of the senior dog population. However, it is often underdiagnosed, with up to 85% of cases going unrecognized. The exact cause of CCD is still not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques and the breakdown of neurons in the brain. These changes disrupt the normal transmission of nerve impulses, leading to cognitive decline.

Recognizing the Symptoms

The symptoms of canine dementia can vary from dog to dog, but there are several common signs to watch out for. These include:

  1. Disorientation: Dogs with CCD (canine cognitive dysfunction) may appear confused or lost, wandering aimlessly or staring into space. They may have difficulty recognizing familiar people or places.
  2. Changes in Interaction: Senior dogs with dementia may become less interested in social interaction and may prefer to spend time alone. They may also display clingy or needy behavior.
  3. Sleep-Wake Cycle Disruptions: Dogs with CCD (canine cognitive dysfunction) often experience changes in their sleep patterns. They may have trouble sleeping through the night, leading to daytime sleepiness and increased agitation.
  4. House Soiling: Some dogs with cognitive dysfunction may have accidents in the house, forgetting their housetraining. They may also exhibit difficulty in finding the appropriate spot to eliminate.
  5. Altered Behavior: Dogs with cognitive dysfunction may display changes in behavior, which can worry dog parents, such as increased anxiety (often not limited to separation anxiety), restlessness, or agitation, sometimes even aggressive behavior. They may also exhibit repetitive behaviors or vocalizations sometimes attributed to worsening separation anxiety.
  6. Loss of Learned Skills: Dogs with cognitive dysfunction may forget previously learned commands or routines. They may struggle with basic tasks they once mastered.
  7. Changes in Appetite: Some dogs with cognitive dysfunction may experience a loss of appetite or a decrease in interest in food.

Diagnosing Canine Dementia

Canine Dementia

If you suspect that your dog may be experiencing symptoms or signs of dementia, it is crucial to consult with a veterinarian for a proper diagnosis. The veterinarian will conduct a thorough examination, ruling out other medical conditions that may mimic dementia symptoms, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or urinary tract infections. They may also perform blood tests and imaging studies to further evaluate your dog's health.

Treating Canine Dementia

While there is no known cure for canine dementia, there are treatment options available that can help manage the symptoms and improve your dog's quality of life. Treatment approaches may include:

  1. Veterinary Medicine: Certain veterinary medications, such as selegiline and propentofylline, have shown promise in managing the symptoms of canine dementia. These veterinary medicines work by increasing blood flow to the brain and enhancing cognitive function.
  2. Dietary Changes: Adjusting your dog's diet to include brain-healthy nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, may help support brain function and slow down cognitive decline. Consult with your veterinarian to determine the best diet for your dog.
  3. Supplements. There are a arange of supplements helpful in canine dementia, a good selection could possibly help in delaying the process and keeping dogs calm.
  4. Environmental Enrichment: Providing a stimulating and enriching environment for your dog can help keep their mind active and engaged. This can include interactive toys, puzzles, and regular mental stimulation exercises.
  5. Routine and Structure: Establishing a consistent routine and structure can help reduce anxiety and confusion in dogs with dementia. Stick to a regular feeding schedule, exercise routine, and bedtime routine to provide a sense of familiarity and comfort.
  6. Veterinary Behaviorist Consultation: Working with a veterinary behaviorist who specializes in cognitive dysfunction can provide valuable insights and guidance in managing your dog's condition.

Diet for Canine Dementia:

Canine Dementia Diet ‍

As our beloved dogs age, it is not uncommon for them to experience cognitive decline, with approximately one-third of dogs over the age of 11 developing canine dementia, also known as canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD) (1). This condition can manifest in various ways, including anxiety, confusion, behavior changes, and house soiling, making the golden years of our furry companions more challenging than we would like. However, emerging evidence suggests that proper nutrition and supplementation can slow down cognitive decline in senior dogs and improve their overall quality of life.


In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the causes of canine cognitive dysfunction, the role of diet in slowing down the progression of this condition, and the best foods and supplements to support cognitive health in dogs in old age. By understanding the underlying mechanisms of CCD and implementing a well-balanced diet, we can help our senior dogs age gracefully and comfortably.

Understanding Canine Cognitive Dysfunction

Before delving into the dietary strategies to support cognitive health, it is essential to understand the causes of canine cognitive dysfunction. As dogs age, physical changes occur in their brains, affecting their ability to learn, remember, and process information, similar to what happens in the human brain with Alzheimer's disease (2). Several factors contribute to cognitive decline in dogs, including:

  1. Impaired blood flow and fuel delivery: The aging brain may struggle to receive adequate blood flow and glucose, its primary source of energy.
  2. Amyloid plaques and protein clumping: Calcium and proteins can accumulate in the neurons, forming amyloid plaques that disrupt brain function.
  3. Toxic buildup and chronic inflammation: Cells may fail to clear away toxins, leading to chronic inflammation, which further impairs cognitive function.
  4. Oxidative stress: Free radicals, unstable atoms produced during metabolic processes, can damage brain cells and contribute to aging and disease.

By addressing these underlying causes, we can potentially slow down the progression of canine cognitive dysfunction and support brain health in senior dogs.

The Role of Diet in Slowing Cognitive Decline

A crucial aspect of managing canine cognitive dysfunction is implementing a diet that supports brain health and minimizes inflammation. A few dietary considerations that can help slow down cognitive decline include:

1. A Raw or Minimally Processed Diet

Feeding a fresh, preferably raw, whole food diet is highly recommended to limit inflammation in the brain. Heat-processed foods like dry kibble or canned food can release inflammatory glycotoxins, also known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which have been shown to accumulate in the brain's neurons of older dogs (3). Additionally, extruded foods or kibble can activate pro-inflammatory genes called cytokines (4). Opting for natural, minimally processed foods can help reduce inflammation and support cognitive health.

2. Anti-inflammatory Foods

Incorporating anti-inflammatory ingredients into your dog's diet can further promote brain health. Some examples of anti-inflammatory foods for dogs include:

  • CBD oil: Known for its anti-inflammatory properties, talk to your vet or professional about CBD can help reduce inflammation in the brain.
  • Bone broth: Rich in nutrients and collagen, bone broth can provide anti-inflammatory benefits for dogs with cognitive dysfunction.
  • Berries: Berries, such as blueberries and strawberries, are packed with antioxidants that combat inflammation and oxidative stress.
  • Brightly colored vegetables: Vegetables like carrots, peppers, and papaya contain phytonutrients like lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin, which have been shown to help prevent dementia in humans.

When it comes to meat, opt for lean sources low in saturated fat, preferably from pasture-raised animals. When incorporating fish into your dog's diet, choose sustainable, wild-caught options, as smaller fish like sardines tend to have lower levels of contaminants.

3. Providing Alternative Sources of Fuel and Improving Blood Flow

Since the aging brain may struggle to utilize glucose efficiently, providing alternative sources of fuel and improving blood flow can support cognitive function in senior dogs.

  • MCT Oil and Ketones: Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil is a valuable supplement for dogs with cognitive dysfunction. MCT oil can be quickly converted into ketones, which are an alternative fuel source for the brain when glucose availability is limited. Additionally, MCT oil helps increase the delivery of omega-3 fatty acids, such as DHA, which are essential for brain function (5).
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, have been shown to lower inflammation, improve blood flow in the brain, and strengthen cell membranes in neurons. Incorporating omega-3 fatty acids into your dog's diet can have significant benefits for cognitive health (6). Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish, such as sardines and salmon, as well as green-lipped mussel extract and ahiflower oil.

4. Antioxidants and Mitochondrial Cofactors

Reducing oxidative stress and supporting mitochondrial function are crucial for maintaining brain health in dogs with cognitive dysfunction.

  • Antioxidants: Antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C, can help combat free radicals and protect brain cells from damage. Feeding a variety of brightly colored vegetables and considering a vitamin E supplement can ensure your dog receives adequate antioxidant support (7).
  • Mitochondrial Cofactors: Mitochondrial cofactors, including L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid, play a vital role in supporting the aging brain. L-carnitine helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production, while alpha-lipoic acid acts as a potent antioxidant. Natural food sources of mitochondrial cofactors include red meat, organ meat, poultry, and fish (8).

5. Nutrients That Support Brain Health

Several nutrients have shown promise in protecting the brain from cognitive decline and supporting overall brain health:

  • Choline: Choline is an essential nutrient involved in brain development and the synthesis of neurotransmitters. It also helps prevent the production of amyloid plaques in the brain. Natural sources of choline include eggs, organ meat, and shiitake mushrooms (9).
  • Turmeric Extract: Curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has shown potential in reducing the accumulation of amyloid plaques and promoting brain health (10).
  • Green Tea Extract: Green tea contains polyphenols and antioxidants that have been associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline. Incorporating green tea extract into your dog's diet may provide additional cognitive benefits (11).
  • Lion's Mane Mushroom: Lion's Mane mushroom has gained attention for its potential to support brain health. Studies have shown that it may aid in clearing amyloid plaques, reduce inflammation, and promote brain cell function (12).

Best Packaged Foods and Supplements for Canine Dementia

Now that we understand the importance of diet in supporting cognitive health other dogs, let's explore some of the best foods and nutrients specifically formulated for dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome.

1. Purina Pro Plan NC NeuroCare

Purina Pro Plan NC NeuroCare is a specially formulated dog food designed to support brain health in dogs with cognitive dysfunction. It contains a unique blend of nutrients, including medium-chain triglycerides, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids, to help nourish the aging brain and slow down cognitive decline. This food is available in both dry and wet formulas, allowing you to choose the option that best suits your dog's preferences (13).

2. Hill's Prescription Diet b/d Brain Aging Care

Hill's Prescription Diet b/d Brain Aging Care is another excellent option for dogs with cognitive dysfunction. This food is carefully formulated with antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and essential vitamins to support brain health and cognitive function. It also contains a blend of botanical ingredients, including ginkgo biloba, to further promote brain health in senior dogs (14).

3. Purina Pro Plan Bright Mind

Purina Pro Plan Bright Mind is a dog food specifically designed to support cognitive health in senior dogs. It includes enhanced botanical oils that provide an alternative fuel source for the brain, helping to keep aging dogs mentally sharp. This food also contains a blend of antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and essential nutrients to support overall brain health (15).

Supplements and Food Additives for Dogs with CDS

 Canine Dementia

In addition to specialized dog foods, certain supplements and food additives can further support cognitive health in dogs with cognitive dysfunction syndrome:

  • Antioxidants: Supplements such as vitamin E and vitamin C can provide additional antioxidant support for dogs with cognitive dysfunction. Consult with your veterinarian to determine the appropriate dosage for your dog's specific needs.
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acid supplements, such as fish oil, can be beneficial for dogs with cognitive dysfunction. These supplements help reduce inflammation and support brain health (16).
  • L-carnitine: L-carnitine supplements can help support mitochondrial function and energy production in aging dogs. By providing an additional source of L-carnitine, you can support brain health and cognitive function (17).

It is crucial to consult with your veterinarian before introducing any new supplements or making significant changes to your dog's diet. Your veterinarian can provide personalized recommendations based on your dog's specific needs.

Frequently Asked Questions About Dog Dementia Diet

What food is good for a dog's brain?

A dog's brain can benefit from a diet that includes nutrient-rich, anti-inflammatory foods. This includes fresh, minimally processed ingredients, lean meats, brightly colored vegetables, berries, and omega-3 fatty acids from fish or supplements. Additionally, incorporating brain-boosting ingredients like turmeric, green tea extract, and Lion's Mane mushroom can provide additional cognitive support.

How do you stimulate an old dog's brain?

Stimulating an old dog's brain is essential for maintaining cognitive function. Engage your dog's behavior and in mentally stimulating activities such as puzzle toys, obedience training, scent games, and interactive play sessions. Regular exercise and socialization can also help keep your dog's brain active and engaged.

Can dogs with dementia be happy?

While dogs with dementia may experience cognitive decline, they can still experience happiness and joy in their daily lives. By providing pets with a supportive environment, implementing a brain-healthy diet, and engaging in mentally stimulating activities, you can help your dog maintain a good quality of life and find moments of happiness despite their condition.

Dog Dementia Diet: Final Thoughts

Cognitive decline in senior dogs can be a challenging and heartbreaking experience for both dogs and their owners. However, by implementing a diet that supports brain health and cognitive function, we can help slow down the progression of canine cognitive dysfunction and improve the overall well-being of our furry canine companions everywhere.

Consider feeding your senior dog a fresh, minimally processed diet rich in anti-inflammatory ingredients, such as lean meats, brightly colored vegetables, and berries. Incorporate brain-boosting supplements like omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and mitochondrial cofactors to further support cognitive health. Remember to consult with your veterinarian before making any significant changes to your dog's diet or introducing new supplements.

With proper nutrition and a loving, supportive environment, we can help our senior dogs age gracefully and enjoy their golden years to the fullest extent possible.

Lions Mane for Dogs

Supporting Your Dog with Canine Dementia

In addition to medical and nutricional interventions, there are several ways you can support your dog with dementia at home. These include:

1. Creating a Safe Environment

Make your home environment safe and comfortable for other pets and your dog by removing any hazards or obstacles that could lead to accidents or injuries. Consider using baby gates to restrict access to certain areas of the house and providing soft bedding to support your dog's joints and provide comfort.

2. Establishing a Consistent Routine

Dogs with dementia thrive on routine and predictability. Establish a daily routine for feeding, exercise, and mental stimulation, and try to stick to it as closely as possible. Consistency can help reduce anxiety and confusion in dogs with CCD.

3. Providing Mental Stimulation

Engage your dog's mind with regular mental stimulation activities, such as puzzle toys, treat-dispensing toys, and interactive games. These activities can help keep your dog's brain active and slow down cognitive decline.

4. Maintaining Physical Exercise

Regular exercise is essential for your dog's overall well-being, including their cognitive health. Take your dog for daily walks, play fetch, or engage in other low-impact activities that they enjoy. However, be mindful of their physical limitations and adjust the intensity and duration of exercise accordingly.

5. Minimizing Stress and Anxiety

Dogs with dementia may experience increased anxiety and stress. Minimize stressors in their environment by providing a quiet and calm space where they can retreat. Consider using pheromone diffusers or calming supplements to help reduce anxiety or adding Reishi mushroom powder to your dogs food to aid in calm.

6. Practicing Patience and Understanding

It can be challenging to see your beloved companion struggle with dementia. Practice patience and understanding as you navigate this journey together. Provide reassurance, comfort, and plenty of love to help alleviate your dog's anxiety and confusion.


Lions Mane for Dogs

Canine dementia, or CCD, is a condition that affects many senior dogs, causing a decline in cognitive function. By recognizing the signs and symptoms of dementia, seeking a proper diagnosis, and implementing appropriate management strategies, you can support your dog's life, and improve their quality of life. Remember to work closely with your veterinarian and consider consulting with a veterinary behaviorist for specialized guidance. With your love, care, and support, you can help your furry friend navigate their golden years with dignity and comfort.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional veterinary advice or veterinary medicine. If you have any concerns about your pet or dog's health or behavior, consult with a qualified veterinarian.



  1. Pan, Y., 2021. Nutrients, cognitive function, and brain aging: What we have learned from dogs. Medical Sciences, 9(4), p.72.
  2. Dewey CW, Davies ES, Xie H, Wakshlag JJ. Canine cognitive dysfunction: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice. 2019 May 1;49(3):477-99.
  3. Weber K, Schmahl W, Münch G. Distribution of advanced glycation end products in the cerebellar neurons of dogs. Brain research. 1998 Apr 27;791(1-2):11-7.
  4. Anderson RC, Armstrong KM, Young W, Maclean P, Thomas DG, Bermingham EN. Effect of kibble and raw meat diets on peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profile in dogs. The Veterinary Journal. 2018 Apr 1;234:7-10.
  5. Cotman CW, Head E, Muggenburg BA, Zicker S, Milgram NW. Brain aging in the canine: a diet enriched in antioxidants reduces cognitive dysfunction. Neurobiology Of Aging. 2002 Sep 1;23(5):809-18.
  6. Heath SE, Barabas S, Craze PG. Nutritional supplementation in cases of canine cognitive dysfunction—A clinical trial. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2007 Jul 1;105(4):284-96.
  7. Kushairi N, Tarmizi NA, Phan CW, Macreadie I, Sabaratnam V, Naidu M, David P. Modulation of neuroinflammatory pathways by medicinal mushrooms, with particular relevance to Alzheimer’s disease. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2020 Oct 1;104:153-62.
  8. Kawagishi H, Zhuang C, Shnidman E. The anti-dementia effect of Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) and its clinical application. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2004 Apr 1(249):54-7.
  9. Pan Y, Kennedy AD, Jönsson TJ, Milgram NW. Cognitive enhancement in old dogs from dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing arginine, antioxidants, B vitamins and fish oil. British Journal of Nutrition. 2018 Feb;119(3):349-58.
  10. Chen C, Xia S, He J, Lu G, Xie Z, Han H. Roles of taurine in cognitive function of physiology, pathologies and toxication. Life Sciences. 2019 Aug 15;231:116584.
  11. Scuderi C, Golini L.


Back to blog